1Lacina Coulibaly, “Sigini: Study of Movement (Foundation and Efficiency)” (in Emily Coates’s possession, May 14, 2018).

2Isadora Duncan, “The Dance of the Future,” in Dance as a Theatre Art: Source Readings in Dance History from 1581 to the Present, ed. Selma Jeanne Cohen (Princeton, NJ: Princeton Book, 1992), 124.

3Ann Daly, Done Into Dance: Isadora Duncan in America (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2002), 12.

4Anthea Kraut, “Between Primitivism and Diaspora: The Dance Performances of Josephine Baker, Zora Neale Hurston, and Katherine Dunham,” Theater Journal 55, no. 3 (October 2003), 433–450.

5Kariamu Welsh-Asante, “In Memory of Pearl Primus,” in African Dance: An Artistic, Historical, and Philosophical Inquiry, ed. Kariamu Welsh-Asante (Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 1996), x.

6Pearl Primus, “African Dance,” in African Dance, 6–7.

7Pearl Primus, Spirituals, Jacobs Pillow Interactive, accessed November 4, 2017,

8“From MR’s Archives: Yvonne Rainer and Aileen Passloff in Conversation with Wendy Perron,” Critical Correspondence, Movement Research, accessed November 4, 2017,

9Serway Physics for Scientists and Engineers, 4th ed. (Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1994), 126.

10For an in-depth study of contact improvisation, see Cynthia Jean Novak, Sharing the Dance: Contact Improvisation and American Culture (Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1990).

11Chute (1979), Videoda Contact Improvisation Archive: Collected Edition, 1972-1983, DVD.

12World’s Most Talented, W Channel, published on YouTube April 15, 2015, accessed May 29, 2018,

13Elizabeth Kendall, Balanchine and the Lost Muse: Revolution and the Making of a Choreographer (New York, Oxford University Press: 2013), 43–44.

14Suzanne Farrell, with Toni Bentley, Holding On To the Air: An Autobiography (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1990), 94–95.

15Balanchine was not the first to teach the straight back leg in fourth position. See Fernau Hall, Olga Preobrazhenskaya: A Portrait (New York: M. Dekker, 1978), 134. Elizabeth Kendall, email to Emily Coates, May 30, 2018. His innovation was the long, low, deep lunge.

16Robert Enoka, The Neuromechanics of Human Movement (Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers, 2015), Table 2.5.

17Tordre, choreographed by Rachid Ouramdane, Baryshnikov Arts Center, October 14, 2016.

18Katherine Profeta, Dramaturgy in Motion: At Work on Dance and Movement (Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 2015), 40.

19Ibid., 81.

20Royona Mitra, “Akram Khan: Dance as Resistance,” Seminar, December 6, 2015, accessed January 30, 2018,

21Susan Foster, “Dancing Bodies: An Addendum, 2009,” Theater 40, no. 1 (2010), 27.

22Lynnette Young Overby and Jan Dunn, “The History and Research of Dance Imagery: Implications for Teachers,” The IADMS Bulletin for Teachers 3, no. 2 (2011), 9.

23Deborah Friedes Galili, “Gaga: Moving Beyond Technique with Ohad Naharin in the 21st Century,” Dance Chronicle 38, no. 3 (2015), 370.

24Yvonne Rainer, “A Quasi Survey of Some ‘Minimalist’ Tendencies in the Quantitatively Minimal Dance Activity Amidst the Plethora, or an Analysis of Trio A” in Rainer, A Woman Who: Essays, Interviews, Scripts (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999), 33.

25Joellen A. Meglin, Jennifer L. Conley, and Dakin Hart, “Ruth Page and Isamu Noguchi’s Expanding Universe (1932, 1950, 2017),” Lecture Demonstration, Dance Studies Association Inaugural Conference, Columbus, OH, October 21, 2017.

26Deborah Hay, Using the Sky: A Dance (New York: Routledge, 2016), 8, 14.

27Ibid., 15.

28Deborah Hay, not as Deborah Hay: A Documentary, by Ellen Bromberg (2011), accessed November 11, 2017,

29Hay, Using the Sky, 4.

30Edward Neville Da Costa Andrade, Rutherford and the Nature of the Atom (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1964), 111.

31James Mooney, “Preface,” The Ghost Dance Religion and the Sioux Outbreak of 1890 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1991), xxi; Alex K. Carroll, M. Nieves Zedeño, and Richard W. Stoffle, “Landscapes of the Ghost Dance: A Cartography of Numic Ritual,” Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 11, no. 2 (June 2004), 137.

32Mooney, “Preface,” x.

33A. L. Kroeber, “A Ghost Dance in California,” Journal of American Folklore 17, no. 64 (January-March 1904), 32–35.

34Carroll, Zedeño, and Stoffle, “Landscapes,” 143–144.

35Carroll, Zedeño, and Stoffle, “Landscapes,” 140–141.

36Mooney, “Preface,” xvi; Russell Thornton, We Shall Live Again: The 1870s and 1890s Ghost Dance Movements as Demographic Revitalization (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1986), 12–13.

37Carroll, Zedeño, and Stoffle, “Landscapes,” 129.

38Brenda Farnell, “Movement Notation Systems,” in The World’s Writing Systems, ed. Peter T. Daniels and William Bright (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), 866.

39Ibid., 855.

40Ibid., 858.

41Rudolf Laban, Choreutics, ed. Lisa Ullman (Alton, Hampshire, UK: Dance Books, 2011), 4.

42Ibid., 10–11.

43Ibid., 17.

44Marion Kant, “German Dance and Modernity: Don’t Mention the Nazis,” in The Routledge Dance Studies Reader: 2nd ed., ed. Alexandra Carter and Janet O’Shea (New York: Routledge, 2010), 113.

45Rob Iliffe, ed., Early Biographies of Isaac Newton, 1665-1880, vol. 1 (London: Pickering and Chatto, 2006), 258.

46“Room Writing,” William Forsythe Improvisation Technologies: A Tool for the Analytical Dance Eye, directed by William Forsythe (Karlsruhe: ZKM, 1999).

47Doris Humphrey, The Art of Making Dances (New York: Rinehart, 1959), 80.

48Jonathan Burrows, A Choreographer’s Handbook (New York: Routledge, 2010), 100.

49Brian Seibert, “Faustin Linyekula: Remember His Name (and Country and Past),” New York Times, September 5, 2017, accessed November 11, 2017.

50“Einstein’s Spacetime,” Gravity Probe B: Testing Einstein’s Universe, accessed May 31, 2018,

51Merce Cunningham, “Space, Time and Dance,” in Merce Cunningham: Dancing in Space and Time: Essays, 1944–1992, ed. Jack Anderson and Ric Kostelanetz (Chicago: A Cappella Books, 1992), 37.

52Ibid., 39.



55Carolyn Brown, Chance and Circumstance: Twenty Years with Cage and Cunningham (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2007), 40–41.

56Ibid., 40.

57Suzanne Carbonneau, “Naked: Eiko and Koma in Art and Life,” in Time Is Not Even, Space Is Not Empty, ed. Joan Rothfuss (New York: D.A.P./Distributed Art Publishers, 2011), 19.

58Olga Viso, “Foreword,” Time Is Not Even, Space Is Not Empty, 14.

59Eiko Otake, “Like a River, Time Is Naked,” presented as part of a 24-Hour Program on the Concept of Time, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York City, January 7, 2009, Eiko & Koma website, accessed November 11, 2017,

60Paul Kaiser, “Steps,” OpenEndedGroup website, accessed November 12, 2017,

61Danielle Goldman, I Want to Be Ready: Improvised Dance as a Practice of Freedom (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2010), 124–125.

62Ann Dils, “The Ghost in the Machine: Merce Cunningham and Bill T. Jones,” Performing Arts Journal 70 (2002), 101.